all about upper lid raiser – AU5

upper lid raiser - levator palpebrae superioris - eye bulge - anatomy

In FACS, upper lid raiser, or AU5, is the action that raises and retracts the upper eyelid; this movement causes the eyes to appear wider and reveal more sclera (the white part of eye). The appearance changes we see in upper lid raiser are the result of an increase in contraction of levator palpebrae superioris, an extraocular muscle that works to keep the upper eyelid elevated.


killer smiles: a fine line between creepy and beautiful

serial killer smiles - Ted Bundy - Rodney Alcala - compared to James Franco and Willem Dafoe

Pre-serial killer considerations, I simply intended to study what causes people to perceive certain smiles as creepy. From observing trends in art, social media, ranking systems, and pop culture, I identified two main types of “creepy smiles”: Type I, which I coined The Grinch Pinch and Type 2, which I coined The Muted Shark. Types I and II typically contain all or many of the following features: